What was the Black Sea grain deal? Know the reasons why it collapsed.

It was in July 2022 when the Black Sea grain initiative was negotiated between the UN, Russia and Turkey. The initiative was a way for Ukraine to ensure that grain could leave its south pole across the Bosphorus. With transportation by rail or road, grain could not be exported in the necessary quantities.

Turkey was involved due to the close ties between the President of Turkey and Vladimir Putin. In addition, the Montreux agreement signed in 1936 said that it watches over maritime traffic in the Dardanelles and Bosphorus straits.

The grain business: what did it promise?

The grain agreement is one of the diplomatic achievements since the war began. It makes it possible to export fertilizers and commercial feed from Odessa, Pivdennyi and Chornomorsk. Cargo ships are guided by Ukrainian vessels towards the international waters of the Black Sea, thus avoiding mined areas. The ships then proceed towards Istanbul along a humanitarian maritime corridor. Ships leaving or heading to Ukrainian ports are checked by groups made up of UN, Ukrainian, Russian and Turkish inspectors. In addition, a separate agreement was also signed that reduced the impact of sanctions on Russian exports of fertilizers and food. Both memorandums were subjected to four and then two monthly reviews.

The result

Even after the lack of confidence, about 33 million tons of grain were exported from Ukrainian ports in July. According to the United Kingdom, about 61 percent of that has been exported to low- to middle-income countries. The World Food Program brought approximately 750,000 tons of Ukrainian grains that were immediately transported to regions such as Ethiopia, Sudan, Afghanistan and Somalia. As a result, the grain price per bushel stopped at $800 from $1,360.

Russia claimed that the proportion of grain that had gone to the poorest countries was actually less than 4 percent.

What went wrong and why?

Russia began to ease inspections. Last year, in the month of October, 10 ship inspections per day were completed, which meant there were 4.2 million metric tons left in the month, falling to two per day in the month of May. The United Nations could inspect a total of 40 ships per day.

Compared to March 2023, food exports decreased overall by 29 percent through the initiative in the month of April and a 66 percent decrease in the month of May. This week, Russia ended the agreement.

It can be said that Russia realized that the West was not respecting the second part of the agreement that actually allowed to increase Russian agricultural exports. According to the UK, Russia’s food export levels are higher than last year and it is exporting a large amount of fertilizer and grain from Novorossiysk.

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Categories: Optical Illusion
Source: ptivs2.edu.vn

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